About the Data

This tool is designed to provide visualizations of election data in Georgia at the precinct level (updated with publicly available data from the Georgia Secretary of State). It provides a choropleth color ramp indicating the percentage of early votes cast in each precinct, along with summary data for both a county and the individual precinct. These data include:

  • Total Registered Voters
  • Total Votes Cast
  • Percent of Total Registered Voters Casting Ballots
  • Percent of All Ballots Cast by Mail
  • Percent of All Ballots Cast Electronically
  • Percent of All Ballots Cast In-Person

Additionally, a layer with information on Polling Places for the 2021 January Senate runoff is available to toggle on or off for select counties. This visualizes the locations of Advanced, Election Day and Mobile Polling Places. Data was acquired from county elections offices as of December 18, 2020. On the main map, Polling Place icons display a hover tooltip providing information on:

  • Polling Place Type
  • Polling Place Location
  • If applicable, Polling Place Date

Data

For more information on the data source and calculation of these variables see below.

Percent of County Voting Age Citizens: The number of citizens in this tract who are voting age, divided by the county's total number of voting age citizens.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018).
  • Calculation: The percent of the population in the tract that is eligible to vote (voting age citizen) out of the total tract citizen population.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to population centers.
  • Limitations: Estimates can have high margins of error for small samples. Assumes people spread evenly across census tract.

Percent of County Workers: The percent of all in-county workers who work in the block. Query only records for people who work and live in the same county. Summarize the total number of in-county workers per block, and divide by the total number of in-county workers in the county.

  • Data sources: Census LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics (LODES) 2015, workplace area characteristics.
  • Calculation: The percent of the population in the tract that is eligible to vote (voting age citizen) out of the total tract citizen population.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with low rates of household vehicle ownership.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

Nov 2020 Percent of Eligible Voters Not Registered: The percentage of voting age citizens who are not registered to vote.

  • Data sources: Georgia Secretary of State voter registration data (2020 General Election); American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018).
  • Calculation: Convert voter registration data to the tract level. Subtract the number of registered voters from the citizen voting age population (CVAP). Divide by the total CVAP estimate in the tract. Where the incarcerated population is over 25% of the CVAP, use the 2010 Census estimate for non-institutionalized populations instead of CVAP.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities of eligible voters who aren’t registered to vote.
  • Limitations: Imperfect conversion of precinct to tract level. The 2010 Census is the most recent estimate for incarcerated and non-institutionalized populations at the tract level.

Percent of Population with Vehicle Access: The percentage of the population with access to a vehicle.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B25044.
  • Calculation: The percent of households with access to at least one vehicle available. The direction of this variable is inverted before it enters the model score, so that areas with a high percentage of car access receive lower priority for siting.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with low rates of household vehicle ownership.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work.

Percent of the Population in Poverty: The percentage of the population with income below the poverty level.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B17001.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents living below poverty in a census tract
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to low-income communities.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work.

Population Density: The total population density per square kilometer.

  • Data sources: Census 2010.
  • Calculation: Divide the total block population by the area of the block (square kilometers).
  • Scale: Census Tract - Note that although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to population centers.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work. Most recent block level population estimate is from 2010.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

2016 Polling Place Voter Percentage: The number of voters who voted at a polling place divided by the total number of voters who voted at a polling place in the county.

  • Data sources: Catalist (2016 General Election).
  • Calculation: Convert precinct to block. Calculate the percent of polling place voters in a block out of the county total. Divide the number of people who voted at a polling place in the 2016 General Election in the block by the total number of people who voted at a polling place in the 2016 General Election.
  • Scale: Census Tract - Note that although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with historically low VBM. CID research finds Latino voters have lower VBM use.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work. Assumes people spread evenly across census tract.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

2016 Vote by Mail Rate (Asian-American): The percentage of Asian-American voters who voted by mail out of total Asian-American voters.

  • Data sources: Catalist (2016 General Election).
  • Calculation: Convert from precinct to block level, calculate as percent of total vote. Calculate the VBM rate for the Asian-American vote by dividing the number of Asian-American voters who voted by mail by the total number of Asian-American voters who voted. The direction of this variable is inverted before it enters the model score, so that areas with a high VBM rate receive lower priority for siting.
  • Scale: Census Tract - Note that although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with low VBM usage. CID research shows that VBM use varies throughout the Asian-American community.
  • Limitations: Imperfect conversion of precinct to block.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

2016 Vote by Mail Rate (Latino): The percentage of Latino voters who voted by mail out of total Latino voters.

  • Data sources: Catalist (2016 General Election).
  • Calculation: Convert from precinct to block level, calculate as percent of total vote. Calculate the VBM rate for the Latino vote by dividing the number of Latino voters who voted by mail by the total number of Latino voters who voted. The direction of this variable is inverted before it enters the model score, so that areas with a high VBM rate receive lower priority for siting.
  • Scale: Census Tract - Note that although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with low VBM usage.
  • Limitations: Imperfect conversion of precinct to block.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

2016 Vote by Mail Rate (Youth): The percentage of voters between the age of 18 and 24 years old who voted by mail out of total youth voters.

  • Data sources: Catalist (2016 General Election).
  • Calculation: Convert from precinct to block level, calculate as percent of total vote. Calculate the VBM rate for the youth vote by dividing the number of youth voters who voted by mail by the total number of youth voters who voted. The direction of this variable is inverted before it enters the model score, so that areas with a high VBM rate receive lower priority for siting.
  • Scale: Census Tract - Note that although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with low VBM usage.
  • Limitations: Imperfect conversion of precinct to block.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

2016 Vote by Mail Rate (Total): The percentage of voters who voted by mail out of total voters.

  • Data sources: Catalist (2016 General Election).
  • Calculation: Convert from precinct to block level, calculate as percent of total vote. Calculate the VBM rate for the total vote by dividing the number of voters who voted by mail by the total number of voters who voted. The direction of this variable is inverted before it enters the model score, so that areas with a high VBM rate receive lower priority for siting.
  • Scale: Census Tract - Note that although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with low VBM usage.
  • Limitations: Imperfect conversion of precinct to block.
  • Note: Although this variable is displayed on the web map at the census tract level, the model input was at the census block level.

African-American Percent of Population: The percentage of the population that is African-American alone, not Hispanic or Latino.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B03002.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents that are African-American alone, not Hispanic or Latino in a tract out of the total tract population.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Note: This data is included as contextual population information only, it was not included in the model or in the scoring of the potential areas.

Asian-American Percent of Population: The percentage of the population that is Asian-American alone, not Hispanic or Latino.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B03002.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents that are Asian-American alone, not Hispanic or Latino in a tract out of the total tract population. The categories for Asian-American alone and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone were summed in order to get a total Asian-American population total.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Note: This data is included as contextual population information only, it was not included in the model or in the scoring of the potential areas.

Latino Percent of Population: The percentage of the population that is Hispanic or Latino.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B03002.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents that are Hispanic or Latino in a tract out of the total tract population.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with historically low VBM. CID research finds Latino voters have lower VBM use.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work. Assumes people spread evenly across census tract.

White Percent of Population: The percentage of the population that is White alone, not Hispanic or Latino.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B03002.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents that are White alone, not Hispanic or Latino in a tract out of the total tract population.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Note: This data is included as contextual population information only, it was not included in the model or in the scoring of the potential areas.

Youth Percent of Population: The percentage of the population between the age of 18 and 24 years old.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B01001.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents between the ages of 18 to 24 years in a tract out of the total tract population.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to communities with historically low VBM usage. CID research finds youth have lower VBM use.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work. Assumes people spread evenly across census tract.

Disabilities Percent of Population: The percentage of the population that is disabled.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2014-2018), Table B23024.
  • Calculation: The percent of residents with disabilities in a census tract out of the total population in the census tract.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to voters with disabilities.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work. Data shows disabled population, not voters.

Limited English Proficient Percent of Population: The percentage of the population that has limited English proficiency.

  • Data sources: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate (2011-2015), Table B16001.
  • Calculation: The percent of the population with limited English proficiency in a census tract. Limited English proficiency is defined as people who speak English “less than very well”.
  • Scale: Census Tract
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to language minority communities.
  • Limitations: Data shows where people live, not where they work. At the time of publication the 2012-2016 data had not yet been released.

Transit Stops: Transit points indicate the location of transit stops in the county and are sourced from regional General Transit Feeds (GTFS). Where GTFS data is missing local transit agency data is used instead.

  • Data sources: GTFS and local transit agencies.
  • Calculation: Frequency of service to each transit stop was normalized to a range of 1-4 that indicates low to high service.
  • Scale: Point
  • Rationale: Voting location/drop off should be proximal to public transportation.
  • Limitations: Assessment of quality will be generally based on published timetables that are subject to change. Some transit stops do not have published stop frequency information. These are retained on the map for visual purposes, but excluded from the analysis.

Reliability of Estimates

Some data published by the American Community Survey (ACS) rely on small sample sizes, meaning that the resulting estimates can have a high degree of uncertainty. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for every ACS-based variable, where the CV is equal to the standard error (associated with 90% confidence interval) divided by the estimate (see ACS documentation, Appendix 1). Tract estimates with a CV over 40% were considered to have a high degree of uncertainty and are flagged visually on the web map with a gray square symbol.